I have come across a number of words which include 买 or 卖, and all seem to mean buy or sell:
买 - mǎilái
买到 - mǎidào
买进 - mǎijìn
买下 - mǎixià
购买 - gòumǎi
卖掉 - màidiào
卖给 - màigěi
出卖 - chūmài
售卖 - shōumài
What is the difference between these words (and the one-character versions)?
tingyunJuly 16, 2011, 12:21 AM
Alot of the words on your list aren't seperate words - 买来 - mǎilái买到 - mǎidào买进 - mǎijìn买下 - mǎixià卖掉 - màidiào卖给 - màigěi - all should be understood through getting a mastery of the second term. 卖掉 works like 扔掉 丢掉 戒掉 etc, 买到 works like 转到 找到, 卖给 like 交给 etc. You've probably observed these uses or other similar ones and have some understanding of them. If not, you can look up 掉，到,etc - even in this case, best to understand each in the context of the many verbs it modifies, get a sense of it by seeing lots of examples.
As for the others - 购买 - gòumǎi is a formal version of 买.
售卖 - shōumài is a formal version for 卖 - but note you've got the tone a bit wrong, 售 is 4th tone, should be shou4mai4. Note there is another term 出售 which has the same meaning.
Note that part of being formal means not only that they are to be used when speaking formally, but also relates to the kinds of parties involved and purchases/sales made. Even a fairly colloquial sentence might use 出售, and even a fairly formal sentence might use 卖, depending on the nature of the transaction.
The tone mistake might be because you've heard the word 收买, which is commonly used for bribery or for related means of purposfully trying to make people like you, ie 收买人心
出卖 - chūmài includes the same meaning as 售卖, ie formal version of 卖, but it is also commonly seen in the meaning of betraying, ie 出卖朋友.
I apologize in advance that I might not see any replies - visits to Cpod boards have become much less frequent as I've gotten rather busy with other matters (happilly most of much involve chinese).
I actually thought I did understand the usages of 来, 到, 进, 下, 掉, and 给. But for some reason that doesn't help me to understand their usage here. Except perhaps 卖给. Any further input here would be appreciated.
The tone error was just carelessness on my part.
Mmm you apparently continue to interpret things that way. It happens to all of us; sometimes we ask a question and get no response from anyone at all. But what makes you take that as a personal snub by CPod? Don't you think the question you're asking here might be quite time-consuming and require significant work to answer well? Don't know, I think I'd ask again a bit more sweetly rather than put on this tone, if I really wanted teacher help here. Or make an effort on my end like breaking down the question into smaller bits, or something.
tingyunJuly 20, 2011, 12:37 AM
I can't help if what you are looking for is the feeling of security associated with a Cpod sanctioned response - but if instead you just really want to understand the remaining ones that I left out in my above post as not technically being separate words, then perhaps I can be of help.
Note the differences in all the below are in emphasis and the feeling convey, as well as general trends of use - none change the basic meaning.
买来 - mǎilái 2 possibilities - a) emphasizes what you got out of the deal, ie spend ___ amount, 能买来 ___ (in other words focuses on the relationship between what you had to do/spend and what the results were) . b) buy and then bring back/return with
买到 - mǎidào 3 possibilities - a) emphasizes the ability to find or purchase a thing under certain conditions or in a certain place. b) emphasizes the ability to select/find/recognize/distinguish a good meeting certain criteria/conditions (ie price, quality, etc)...so where to go to find the cheapest of a kind, or recognize good quality among many options, etc. c) similar to 买来's role a in focusing on result of expenditure
买进 - mǎijìn I haven't run into this one enough to have a very clear intuition, beyond a sense of associating it with stock markets or extremely large scale transactions in goods
买下 - mǎixià a) emphasizes the exclusive and complete nature of the purchase - ie one company 买下 another company, it both owns the entire purchased company and noone else can buy the purchased company (because there is only one). Wouldn't expect to see this used in situations where either of these conditions aren't satisfied (unless writer is attempting to achieve an effect by exaggerating the subjective feelings of exclusivity and totality to a transaction that doesn't objectively have these characteristics). b) used with any specific result that involves expenditure to obtain, and that is a result that can be conceived of as fairly either/or in nature, ie spend ____ and achieve safety in a certain production process
卖掉 - màidiào emphasizes that you got rid of, disposed of the thing in question. Would not tend to be used by, say, a store that has a bunch of the thing in inventory and sells it daily, but would if you were getting rid of a stock that you now thought was too risky, or a company is getting rid of a division that had been losing money, etc
卖给 - màigěi Sell to ____, where the _____ is filled by whatever is after the 给. Thus it emphasizes and places focus on who the buyer in the transaction is, and thus would be used when you want to draw the reader/listener's attention to who the buyer is.
Note the above is intended to characterize the vast majority of uses - I'd imagine 95 percent fall into the uses noted above. But since the above aren't rigidly defined words, there is always the possibility for someone to use in a different way (especially when you take regional differences and the huge variations between individual people's language habits into account). But the above should help you understand what people are likely conveying when you encounter the above, and should be a good guide for how to use them yourself.
Obviously the above is based on a non-native speaker's intuition about subtle implications in the language...though from experience my intuition is usually very accurate, and I'd guess that if you ask 5 different native speakers you'll get 5 different answers, at least one of which will be consistent with mine. ;) Anyway, as I said the above are consistent with the uses of 到掉给下etc in other situations, so you should be able to notice patterns in feeling in how they work with other verbs.
Thank you for taking the time to offer such a detailed explanation! It's very well written. They are all correct.
I will just give a few examples to accompany:
买来 - mǎilái 我从书店买来一本书。
买到 - mǎidào 我终于买到ｉＰａｄ了。
买进 - mǎijìn 我昨天买进了１０００股银行股股票，今天卖出。
买下 - mǎixià 存了１０年钱，我终于买下了自己的房子。
购买 - gòumǎi 中国人的购买力越来越强。
卖掉 - màidiào 我卖掉了自己的车子。
卖给 - màigěi 我把车子卖给朋友了。
出卖 - chūmài 我最好的朋友出卖了我，我很伤心。
售卖 - shōumài (formal, used in announcements, ads, rarely use in daily conversations) 这款香水只在免税店售卖。