Intermediate - Sentence Grammar
John: Hey Intermediate learners, this is ChinesePod, I'm John.
John: And we have a fun lesson today chock full of grammar.
John: So let me warn you, if you're not into grammar, run now and just turn off this podcast.
Dilu: 对。如果你不是很care grammar的话，这一课呢will kill you。
John: We're going to talk about parts of speech, we're going to talk about sentence elements. Its all coming up in this dialog.
John: Right off the bat, its a student's question for a teacher about what word?
John: So if we translate that into English, it could be 'manage', a verb, and it could be 'management' which is a noun.
John: So it can be a verb. So when you say a word can be a verb, we use ...
John: You know 做 can mean 'to make', 'to do', it can also sometimes mean 'to be'.
John: One quick question that we didn't hit. 管理 - what are the tones?
Dilu: 两个第三声。但是会有一个tone change。变成第二声和第三声。
John: 区别, 1st tone, 2nd tone - that's a verb which means 'to distinguish', 'to tell the difference'.
John: So the word 区别 can be a verb or a noun. So if you wanted to ask 'what's the difference', that's a very useful to ask your teacher, you can say ...
John: And how do you tell the difference?
John: Both useful questions. So 怎么区别呢？
John: In the beginning we had 要看 - 'you have to look at'.
Dilu: You need to look at.
John: We could also translate that as 'it depends on'.
John: So it depends on what sentence element it is.
John: So the word for sentence is ...
John: 4th tone and neutral. And 'element' or 'component part'?
John: 2nd tone and 4th tone.
John: We're about to get into the sentence elements a little bit, but let me just say real quickly that these are separate from parts of speech. Its a parallel classification. It has its own usage. In the next sentence we hear three of the big ones. What are they?
John: 谓语 - that's 4th tone, 3rd tone - and that is 'predicate'.
John: 主语 is 3rd-3rd, and that means subject.
John: 1st tone and 3rd tone, and that is object.
John: We're not going to go into too much about what these are. You can look them up in the dictionary, but they're useful to know if you really want to talk about grammar.
John: Now one other thing to mention here - we have this word 或者.
John: That means 'or', frequently used in statements, not when you're asking 'do you want this or this', but when you're telling 'it can be this or this'.
John: So when the word 管理 is either the subject or the object, its a noun. Then the student asks for an example.
John: The word 举, ju, is 3rd tone.
John: And it literally means 'to raise', right?